May 2nd, 2019
Welcome to my guide on installing Glorious Arch Linux! For some background, I have been using arch for the last and it is still my only machine that I use as a daily driver. Arch Linux is a lightweight DIY type of distro that does not assume what kind of person you are and thus just lets you be yourself.
The whole system comes with a pre-compiled kernel (
pacman), and some basic coreutils (
GNU). That does not seem
a lot, but this is just enough to make some great things. It installs a
barebone system which allows the user to customize their system to
smallest details and making it their own. Not like
ubuntu with all the
whistles and bangs included.
This guide has an exact copy of steps I use when installing Arch Linux. Installed it over ~25 times. The beauty of arch is that no installation is considered the best one. Every installation can be unique and bespoke. This guide only shows how to setup a complete arch environment with simple and straight-forward steps. If you want to know more about each step and different options you can go with, please consult with the official Arch Wiki. They have everything and more than you will ever need.
Inter the Arch Linux Official Website and
download the latest image file. Later on just take a flash drive and
burn it with
rufus on Windows or with
dd on Linux. To save you some
trouble, here is an example
dd command to burn the image
% sudo dd if=/path/to/image.iso of=/dev/your_drive
|This guide does not include installing Arch Linux as dual boot.|
BIOS and Flash Drive
This part is quite easy. The only thing that you should do is to tell your BIOS to boot from Flash Drives instead of bootloader and other drives. This process is different for every BIOS Version and motherboard, however, this is really easy as all the entries in the BIOS menu are self-explanatory.
Just plug in your flash drive and power on/reboot your device. + Now, you will see a systemd prompt asking to boot. Choose the boot option that includes Arch Linux in it. + You should see a prompt of this form:
If you see a bunch of files when running the command below, then everything is [green]/OK/
% ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivarsImportant
If you have an Ethernet connection, you may skip this step. If you are trying to install Arch Linux on a laptop, please use
wifi-menuto connect to a wifi point.
Okay, now we need to partition our hard/state drive. How do we do that?
Actually, there are many ways to to it, however I prefer to use
cfdisk. It has pseudo-GUI, which is easier to work and operate with.
Before partitioning, we should find the name of your drive. For that, in
your command line type.
% fdisk -l
You will see a list of available storages. Ignore everything that ends
with: boot, root, include, etc. What you are interested in is the
biggest available drive. For example, my laptop has integrated SD Card
27GB and it is called
/dev/mmcblk0. For the sake of simplicity, let’s
/dev/sda for the name of the drive. Okay, good. Now,
cfdisk by typing
% cfdisk -z /dev/sda
You will enter pseudo-GUI interface. Select gpt and now you will see
your drive’s partitions. Next, we need to create 3 partitions:
Swap memory(/dev/sda2) and
Root Directory (x86_64)(/dev/sda3). I don’t create home partitions,
as I just don’t like it.
By the rules, your swap should be 2xRAM and EFI System 512MB. Everything else can be given to Root Directory. Now, exit cfdisk by choosing QUIT.
We need to format partitions appropriately and accordignly. Your EFI System should be FAT32 formatted, because we use systemd-boot. To do that, type
% mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sda1
Your swap partition should be formatted as swap memory (obviously)
% mkswap /dev/sda2 % swapon /dev/sda2
Your main directory should be formatted as ext4, so to use all your files further on
% mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
Very good, our partitions are properly formatted and we can go on.
Now, we should mount our partitions. Firstly, we should mount our root partition
% mount /dev/sda3 /mnt
Then, we should mount the EFI System, so the system would know where is the boot point. We also need to create boot directory on our own.
% mkdir /mnt/boot % mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot
Awesome, everything is mounted, now we can start installing the system
Finding closest mirrors
This part is quite easy. However, when I was installing my system, I had a problem with downloading speed, it was something like 20-50KB/s. Awful. To fix that and get the maximum download speed, do the following:
% cp /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist.backup % sed -i 's/^#Server/Server/' /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist.backup % rankmirrors -n 6 /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist.backup > /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
Now, you will be connected to the fastest mirrors in your location. Hurray!
Now we will install the base system. Here, we will intall base and base-devel packages, because it will get us enough packages to start using Arch Linux. It may take a while. Sit back, take a cup of coffee and relax.
% pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
Now, the system is installed on the device and we need to tell our OS and Bootloader about the partitions of our disk. To do so, perform:
% genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Configuring the system
If you have come this far, congratulations! You have installed the raw version of arch and essential tools. We have to perform some number of necessary configurations to make it usable as a daily driver.
Log in to the newly installed system with
% arch-chroot /mnt
|If it does not let you in or some error occurs, please make sure you followed all the steps correctly.|
Setting the time
We need to set your local time. Find your timezone in
/usr/share/zonenifoand use it instead of
% ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Region/City /etc/localtime % hwclock --systohc
Configuring essential files
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8and other if needed in
Generate locales by running
LANGvariable equal to locale
% echo 'LANG=en_US.UTF-8' > /etc/locale.conf
Set the keyboard layout to standard QWERTY
% echo 'KEYMAP=us' > /etc/vconsole.confNote
If you are a power user with dvorak, run
% echo 'KEYMAP=dvorak' > /etc/vconsole.conf
Set the hostname of your choice
% echo myhostname > /etc/hostname
Configure the hosts on your machine
% echo 127.0.0.1 localhost\n::1 localhost\n127.0.1.1 myhostname.localdomain myhostname
Configuring your network drivers with
% pacman -S iw dialog wpa_actiond wpa_supplicant sudo
Generate your kernel image (initramfs)
% mkinitcpio -p linux
Change your default root password
Add new users
% useradd -m -G wheel -s /usr/bin/bash user
Set the sudo access by uncommenting
%wheel ALL=(ALL) ALLwhen running
Changing the user's password
% passwd user
Small but important things swept out of the way, we have to configure one of the most important parts of this installation. Usually only arch and gentoo people have to work with manually setting up a bootloader. Bootloader is a small program that boots your actual OS after motherboard’s BIOS gives you control over the system. In this installation, we are going with systemd. It is the most compatible bootloader with Arch system in general. Also, my laptop’s hardware does not work with other bootloaders. Systemd is getting some bad fame because it is bloated, massive, and way too complicated. I agree with it but this is the best we have right now. Just like C++.
|You can go with GRUB, but please consult with Arch Wiki before trying to do that.|
Assuming you have an intel chipset, run the following
% pacman -S intel-ucode % bootctl --path=/boot install
nano text editor to write down the following:
/boot/loader/loader.conf ------------------------ default Arch(arch) timeout 4 editor 0
And for the second file:
/boot/loader/entries/entry.conf ------------------------------- title Arch Linux linux /vmlinuz-linux initrd /intel-ucode.img initrd /initramfs-linux.img options root=/dev/sda3 rw
You are exactly two commands away from a complete Arch Linux installation!
You need to exit
chroot by runing
% exit and reboot with
When you turn your machine back on, you should see some text popping out on the screen (that’s systemd) and finally, you should see the following prompt:
Arch Linux (tty1) _myhostname_ login:
If you see this, then Congratulations! + You have completed the installation. Everything is terminal based, if you want to install X Window Server for GUI and other shiny stuff, please follow to teh Post-Installation chapter.
|If you did not see the login prompt, retrace your steps and make sure you followed everything in this guide. Best way to get out, is just search for the problem online or visit r/archlinux to get some real online help.|
I hope you enjoyed this installation guide. After the last step, you should be able to have an actual working and stable system. I will not go into details how to set up your Desktop Environment or Window Manager. It should be unique and this is your adventure now. I will give you a list of useful commands just to get started. Also, further reading links will be included.
Run this to install a package
% sudo pacman -S package_name
Remove a package from your system
% sudo pacman -Rs package_name
Update the system’s packages
% sudo pacman -Syu
Installing X Graphical Server
% sudo pacman -S xorg xorg-xinit
% sudo pacman -S zshand update your shell
Installing graphical terminal emulator
% sudo pacman -S rxvt-unicode rxvt-unicode-terminfo
% sudo pacman -S i3 dmenu
% echo \#!/bin/bash\nexec i3 > ~/.xinitrcand
% chmod 700 ~/.xinitrc
Start graphical X server with
Never ever run
I hope you enjoyed the installation process and I am sure you were able to learn something new about Linux and yourself.
See you next time.
IT’S DANGEROUS TO GO ALONE! TAKE THIS.
|Always try to consult with the List of Applications while searching for a program and when installing it.|